A single intravenous dose of the potent antibiotic dalbavancin is associated with a greater than 90% clinical success rate in treating skin infections among difficult-to-treat intravenous drug users, researchers reported here at ASM Microbe 2016.
"Medical care for patients with a history of intravenous drug user is complicated by medical, social, and economic issues that affect adherence to treatment," said Pedro L. Gonzalez, MD, Allergan, Jersey City, New Jersey, on June 16. "Safe treatment options that increase treatment adherence are needed in the intravenous drug user population."
The authors scrutinised data from 105 intravenous drug users who received 1 dose of dalbavancin. They were compared with 244 patients who were not intravenous drug users and also received 1 dose of the drug.
All patients were diagnosed with an acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection involving deeper soft tissue or requiring significant surgical intervention such as a major cutaneous abscess or, surgical site or traumatic wound infection, or cellulitis. Patients were excluded from the trial if they had Gram-negative bacteraemia, burns, diabetic foot infection, decubitus ulcer, infected device or venous catheter entry site infection.
The day 28 clinical success rate among intravenous drug users reached 94.1% among individuals who received one 1,500-mg infusion of the agent which compared favourably with a 91.4% clinical success rate among patients who were not intravenous drug users.
Of the 105 patients treated with 1 dose of dalbavancin who were intravenous drug users, 94 achieved a clinical response within 72 hours compared with 190 of 244 patients who did not have a history of intravenous drug use. None of the differences were statistically significantly different.
"A single, convenient 30-minute intravenous infusion and lack of a need for indwelling intravenous access may optimise adherence without increasing the potential for abuse in the intravenous drug user population," said Dr. Gonzalez.
"Dalbavancin was safe and well tolerated in patients with and without a history of intravenous drug use," he added.
Funding for this study was provided by Allergan plc. Dublin, Ireland.
ASM Microbe 2016 is an inaugural meeting of the American Society for Microbiology that combines its annual general meeting with the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC).