Clinical examination is critical for the diagnosis and identification of response to treatment. It is fortunate that technologies are continuing to evolve, enabling augmentation of classical clinical examination with noninvasive imaging modalities. This article discusses emerging technologies with a focus on digital photographic imaging, confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, and high-frequency ultrasound, as well as several additional developing modalities.
The most readily adopted technologies to date include total-body digital photography and dermoscopy, with some practitioners beginning to use confocal microscopy. In this article, applications and limitations are addressed. For a detailed discussion of the principles involved in these technologies, please refer to the first part of this review article.